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Monitoring of the population and habitat of the Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora) in Yogyakarta

Biodiversity and Wildlife Conservation

Monitoring of the population and habitat of the Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora) in Yogyakarta

Since 2005, the conservation program for the Java Sparrow in Yogyakarta and Central Java has included searching for nesting habitats, population monitoring, and sales. Observation locations include the Prambanan Temple complex, Hotel Melia Purosani, Luweng Njothak, and the Ngasem and Prambanan bird markets. Observations are still ongoing by the BKSDA and bird observers in Yogyakarta. After the 2006 earthquake damaged the Prambanan Temple, we built artificial nests around trees commonly used by the Java Sparrow. Daily monitoring is conducted, and in 2007, we successfully found nests with eggs and chicks. The artificial nests are also utilized by other birds. However, the Java Sparrow still nests in the temple buildings. This program aims to maintain the population of the Java Sparrow in its threatened natural habitat.

The Java Sparrow, endemic to Java, Bali, and Kangean, is now endangered due to large-scale hunting and the narrowing of rice field areas. This bird is among the most traded and sold, fetching prices of Rp 50,000 – Rp 100,000 per bird, making it the main target of bird hunters.

Habitat is a place for animals to feed, sleep, and breed. Its physical components include water, air, climate, topography, soil, and space. Biotic components include vegetation, fauna, and humans. Territory is an area defended by individual animals, usually for food, mating, or raising offspring. Java Sparrows are often found in grassy areas, savannas, rice fields, and nest under roofs, in tree holes, cave walls, or cliffs. It is important to protect their habitat and territory.

The population of the Java Sparrow is fragmented and small, numbering less than 1000 individuals. Due to the drastic population decline, the IUCN categorizes it as endangered (EN). Listed in CITES Appendix II, limiting international trade. The Java Sparrow is favored for the color of its feathers. Serious and urgent conservation efforts are needed to prevent extinction. Despite the hunting ban, enforcement remains ineffective.


Sunaring Kurniandaru

“To see birds, it is necessary to be part of the silence.”

-Robert Lynd

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Biodiversity and Wildlife Conservation
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